On Fri, 8 Mar 2013 09:35:39 +0900 Tom Gundersen email@example.com wrote:
A new systemd release is out (not yet packaged though), and there are several features which might be of interest to us.
---------- Forwarded message ---------- From: Lennart Poettering firstname.lastname@example.org Date: Fri, Mar 8, 2013 at 8:12 AM Subject: [systemd-devel] [ANNOUNCE] systemd 198 To: systemd Mailing List email@example.com
Finally, here's 198, with many big changes:
* Configuration of unit files may now be extended via drop-in files without having to edit/override the unit files themselves. More specifically, if the administrator wants to change one value for a service file foobar.service he can now do so by dropping in a configuration snippet into /etc/systemd/systemd/foobar.service.d/*.conf. The unit logic will load all these snippets and apply them on top of the main unit configuration file, possibly extending or overriding its settings. Using these drop-in snippets is generally nicer than the two earlier options for changing unit files locally: copying the files from /usr/lib/systemd/system/ to /etc/systemd/system/ and editing them there; or creating a new file in /etc/systemd/system/ that incorporates the original one via ".include". Drop-in snippets into these .d/ directories can be placed in any directory systemd looks for units in, and the usual overriding semantics between /usr/lib, /etc and /run apply for them too. * Most unit file settings which take lists of items can now be reset by assigning the empty string to them. For example, normally, settings such as Environment=FOO=BAR append a new environment variable assignment to the environment block, each time they are used. By assigning Environment= the empty string the environment block can be reset to empty. This is particularly useful with the .d/*.conf drop-in snippets mentioned above, since this adds the ability to reset list settings from vendor unit files via these drop-ins. * systemctl gained a new "list-dependencies" command for listing the dependencies of a unit recursively. * Inhibitors are now honored and listed by "systemctl suspend", "systemctl poweroff" (and similar) too, not only GNOME. These commands will also list active sessions by other users. * Resource limits (as exposed by the various control group controllers) can now be controlled dynamically at runtime for all units. More specifically, you can now use a command like "systemctl set-cgroup-attr foobar.service cpu.shares 2000" to alter the CPU shares a specific service gets. These settings are stored persistently on disk, and thus allow the administrator to easily adjust the resource usage of services with a few simple commands. This dynamic resource management logic is also available to other programs via the bus. Almost any kernel cgroup attribute and controller is supported. * systemd-vconsole-setup will now copy all font settings to all allocated VTs, where it previously applied them only to the foreground VT. * libsystemd-login gained the new sd_session_get_tty() API call. * This release drops support for a few legacy or distribution-specific LSB facility names when parsing init scripts: $x-display-manager, $mail-transfer-agent, $mail-transport-agent, $mail-transfer-agent, $smtp, $null. Also, the mail-transfer-agent.target unit backing this has been removed. Distributions which want to retain compatibility with this should carry the burden for supporting this themselves and patch support for these back in, if they really need to. Also, the facilities $syslog and $local_fs are now ignored, since systemd does not support early-boot LSB init scripts anymore, and these facilities are implied anyway for normal services. syslog.target has also been removed. * There are new bus calls on PID1's Manager object for cancelling jobs, and removing snapshot units. Previously, both calls were only available on the Job and Snapshot objects themselves. * systemd-journal-gatewayd gained SSL support. * The various "environment" files, such as /etc/locale.conf now support continuation lines with a backslash ("\") as last character in the line, similar in style (but different) to how this is supported in shells. * For normal user processes the _SYSTEMD_USER_UNIT= field is now implicitly appended to every log entry logged. systemctl has been updated to filter by this field when operating on a user systemd instance. * nspawn will now implicitly add the CAP_AUDIT_WRITE and CAP_AUDIT_CONTROL capabilities to the capabilities set for the container. This makes it easier to boot unmodified Fedora systems in a container, which however still requires audit=0 to be passed on the kernel command line. Auditing in kernel and userspace is unfortunately still too broken in context of containers, hence we recommend compiling it out of the kernel or using audit=0. Hopefully this will be fixed one day for good in the kernel. * nspawn gained the new --bind= and --bind-ro= parameters to bind mount specific directories from the host into the container. * nspawn will now mount its own devpts file system instance into the container, in order not to leak pty devices from the host into the container. * systemd will now read the firmware boot time performance information from the EFI variables, if the used boot loader supports this, and takes it into account for boot performance analysis via "systemd-analyze". This is currently supported only in conjunction with Gummiboot, but could be supported by other boot loaders too. For details see: http://www.freedesktop.org/wiki/Software/systemd/BootLoaderInterface * A new generator has been added that automatically mounts the EFI System Partition (ESP) to /boot, if that directory exists, is empty, and no other file system has been configured to be mounted there. * logind will now send out PrepareForSleep(false) out unconditionally, after coming back from suspend. This may be used by applications as asynchronous notification for system resume events. * "systemctl unlock-sessions" has been added, that allows unlocking the screens of all user sessions at once, similar how "systemctl lock-sessions" already locked all users sessions. This is backed by a new D-Bus call UnlockSessions(). * "loginctl seat-status" will now show the master device of a seat. (i.e. the device of a seat that needs to be around for the seat to be considered available, usually the graphics card). * tmpfiles gained a new "X" line type, that allows configuration of files and directories (with wildcards) that shall be excluded from automatic cleanup ("aging"). * udev default rules set the device node permissions now only at "add" events, and do not change them any longer with a later "change" event. * The log messages for lid events and power/sleep keypresses now carry a message ID. * We now have a substantially larger unit test suite, but this continues to be work in progress. * udevadm hwdb gained a new --root= parameter to change the root directory to operate relative to. * logind will now issue a background sync() request to the kernel early at shutdown, so that dirty buffers are flushed to disk early instead of at the last moment, in order to optimize shutdown times a little. * A new bootctl tool has been added that is an interface for certain boot loader operations. This is currently a preview and is likely to be extended into a small mechanism daemon like timedated, localed, hostnamed, and can be used by graphical UIs to enumerate available boot options, and request boot into firmware operations. * systemd-bootchart has been relicensed to LGPLv2.1+ to match the rest of the package. It also has been updated to work correctly in initrds. * Policykit previously has been runtime optional, and is now also compile time optional via a configure switch. * systemd-analyze has been reimplemented in C. Also "systemctl dot" has moved into systemd-analyze. * "systemctl status" with no further parameters will now print the status of all active or failed units. * Operations such as "systemctl start" can now be executed with a new mode "--irreversible" which may be used to queue operations that cannot accidentally be reversed by a later job queuing. This is by default used to make shutdown requests more robust. * The Python API of systemd now gained a new module for reading journal files. * A new tool kernel-install has been added that can install kernel images according to the Boot Loader Specification: http://www.freedesktop.org/wiki/Specifications/BootLoaderSpec * Boot time console output has been improved to provide animated boot time output for hanging jobs. * A new tool systemd-activate has been added which can be used to test socket activation with, directly from the command line. This should make it much easier to test and debug socket activation in daemons. * journalctl gained a new "--reverse" (or -r) option to show journal output in reverse order (i.e. newest line first). * journalctl gained a new "--pager-end" (or -e) option to jump to immediately jump to the end of the journal in the pager. This is only supported in conjunction with "less". * journalctl gained a new "--user-unit=" option, that works similar to "--unit=" but filters for user units rather than system units. * A number of unit files to ease adoption of systemd in initrds has been added. This moves some minimal logic from the various initrd implementations into systemd proper. * The journal files are now owned by a new group "systemd-journal", which exists specifically to allow access to the journal, and nothing else. Previously, we used the "adm" group for that, which however possibly covers more than just journal/log file access. This new group is now already used by systemd-journal-gatewayd to ensure this daemon gets access to the journal files and as little else as possible. Note that "make install" will also set FS ACLs up for /var/log/journal to give "adm" and "wheel" read access to it, in addition to "systemd-journal" which owns the journal files. We recommend that packaging scripts also add read access to "adm" + "wheel" to /var/log/journal, and all existing/future journal files. To normal users and administrators little changes, however packagers need to ensure to create the "systemd-journal" system group at package installation time. * The systemd-journal-gatewayd now runs as unprivileged user systemd-journal-gateway:systemd-journal-gateway. Packaging scripts need to create these system user/group at installation time. * timedated now exposes a new boolean property CanNTP that indicates whether a local NTP service is available or not. * systemd-detect-virt will now also detect xen PVs * The pstore file system is now mounted by default, if it is available. * In addition to the SELinux and IMA policies we will now also load SMACK policies at early boot. Contributions from: Adel Gadllah, Aleksander Morgado, Auke Kok, Ayan George, Bastien Nocera, Colin Walters, Daniel Buch, Daniel Wallace, Dave Reisner, David Herrmann, David Strauss, Eelco Dolstra, Enrico Scholz, Frederic Crozat, Harald Hoyer, Jan Janssen, Jonathan Callen, Kay Sievers, Lennart Poettering, Lukas Nykryn, Mantas Mikulėnas, Marc-Antoine Perennou, Martin Pitt, Mauro Dreissig, Max F. Albrecht, Michael Biebl, Michael Olbrich, Michal Schmidt, Michal Sekletar, Michal Vyskocil, Michał Bartoszkiewicz, Mirco Tischler, Nathaniel Chen, Nestor Ovroy, Oleksii Shevchuk, Paul W. Frields, Piotr Drąg, Rob Clark, Ryan Lortie, Simon McVittie, Simon Peeters, Steven Hiscocks, Thomas Hindoe Paaboel Andersen, Tollef Fog Heen, Tom Gundersen, Umut Tezduyar, William Giokas, Zbigniew Jędrzejewski-Szmek, Zeeshan Ali (Khattak)
-- Lennart Poettering - Red Hat, Inc. _______________________________________________ systemd-devel mailing list firstname.lastname@example.org http://lists.freedesktop.org/mailman/listinfo/systemd-devel
With this release, I have a minor issue with shutdown/reboot as a normal user from tty, if the _same_ tty saw a root login and subsequent logout earlier. I _guess_, this is also true for any other user, not only root. So: 1. Power on -> login as a user to tty -> systemctl poweroff works OK. 2. Power on -> login as root to tty; do something; logout -> login as user to same tty -> systemctl poweroff yields :User root is logged in on tty1. :Please retry operation after closing inhibitors and logging out other :users. Alternatively, ignore inhibitors and users with 'systemctl poweroff :-i'. Meanwhile, systemd-inhibit --list says there are 0 inhibitors, ps shows no root shells, and loginctl shows no leftover root sessions. I have all default configs... So what am I missing here?
Thanks in advance,